The interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems, predominantly when the system is involved in a closed signal loop with a circular causal relationship. In other words Cybernetics studies the flow of information round a system and the way in which that information is used by the system as a mean of controlling itself.
Management cybernetics is the field of cybernetics concerned with management and organisations first introduced by Stafford Beer in the late 1950s. It addresses the issues that every individual who wants to influence an organisation in any way must learn to resolve. This theory is not restricted to the actions of top managers. Every member of an organization and every person who to a greater or lesser extent communicates or interacts with it is involved in the considerations.